Craniosynostoses

NON SYNDROMIC (PLAIN) CRANIOSYSNOSTOSES

 

CRANIAL SUTURES AND PREMATURE CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS

Craniosynostosis is called the premature conjunction of two or more skull bones.

The infant skull consists of bones which aren’t still joined together but are held by flexible joints which are called cranial sutures.

Because at the early stages of life, the brain has a very intense growth, the bones, yielding to the pressure of the developing brain are removed from one another thereby permitting the normal development of the brain and skull.

When the growth of the brain stops, the cranial sutures lose their functional significance and have no reason to exist anymore, so they close and the bones are joined together.

Premature synostosis, i.e. the premature connection of bones, prevents the normal development of the skull and brain and causes morphological (changes in normal head shape), functional, and developmental problems in children.

If a suture between the two bones closes prematurely then the skull cannot grow normally and bones which still have open sutures will be developed more compensatory as not to limit the development of brain volume. This has as a result the further deformed head growth. The premature synostosis of each suture creates a characteristic deformity (see below).

 

THERE ARE FOUR GENERAL CATEGORIES OF NON SYNDROMIC PREMATURE SYNOSTOSIS

 

PLAGIOCEPHALY

The term "plagiocephaly" is a broad term in order to describe the asymmetric formation of the skull, and is divided into two groups: the frontal and occipital plagiocephaly.

FRONTAL PLAGIOCEPHALY

The ‘frontal plagiocephaly’ is characterized by widening and asymmetry of the face due to premature closure (early synostosis) of the left or right side of the coronary suture.

The appearance is characteristic:

  • On the side, where the problem exists, the forehead (brow) is wide (flat) or even concave.

  • The nasal root is drawn to the side of the problem.

  • The orbit is raised in relation with the orbit of the opposite side.

  • The eyebrow is usually at highest position.

  • The ear is also in a more forward position.

  • On the opposite side, the forehead (brow) is more visible, a phenomenon that is caused by the pressure that the brain exerts in an effort to provide the necessary space for its development

 

Severe frontal synostotic plagiocephalySevere frontal synostotic plagiocephalyPostoperative appearancePostoperative appearanceThree-dimensional imagingThree-dimensional imagingThree-dimensional imaging, different image processing

 

Premature synostosis of the right side of the coronary suture.View from the top of the headAppearance after two surgical operations (due to the severity of the case)Postoperative view from the top of the headThree-dimensional imagingThree-dimensional imaging. View from the top of the head.

Diagnosis is absolutely necessary to do in the first months of infancy, because the confronting of the synostotic frontal plagiocephaly is always surgical and ideally should be done from the sixth to the twelfth month, in order to be ensured the maximum benefit.

The malformation which is considered unimportant by many parents, actually it is developed into a serious problem, because as time passes and deteriorated. In older age, the surgical repair is significantly more difficult.

The restoration of the frontal plagiocephaly is performed by a surgical team that is specialized in craniofacial problems. In the certain cases, the craniofacial / plastic surgeon and the neurosurgeon cooperate.

During the surgery, the malformative area of the forehead and orbital cavities is removed and with various manipulations, it is assigned the physiological shape of the bone area which is the upper portion of the orbital cavities. It is followed by the displacement of bone fragments in order to create a new and symmetrical forehead.

The stay of the patient in the Intensive Care Unit for 24 hours after surgery is essential in order to be ensured the optimal resuscitation and the total hospital stay is usually no more than 5-7 days.

OCCIPITAL PLAGIOCEPHALY

The occipital plagiocephaly is characterized by asymmetry and widening of the back section of the head (cerebrooccipital region).

In the most cases of occipital plagiocephaly are due to exercise of external pressure in the skull (in utero or after birth), while a small amount due to premature closure (synostosis) of lambdoid suture.

 

Premature closure (synostosis) of lambdoid suture. Deviation of the head to the opposite side (left).Premature closure (synostosis) of lambdoid suture. Typical occipital bulgeAt the age of six. The head deviation can still be observed.At the age of six. The occipital bulge remains.At the age of thirteen. The head shape is smoothed.At the age of thirteen. The occipital bulge remains.

 

Premature synostosis of lambdoid suture. Three-dimensional display of old technology. Typical occipital bulgePremature synostosis of lambdoid suture. skull base imaging. Divergence of the axes of the front and rear half of the basePostoperative imaging of the skull base. The outline is smoothedThe occipital bulge remains

The treatment of the occipital plagiocephaly cases of premature synostosis of the lambdoid suture is surgical. The appropriate surgery consists in cranioplasty of the back of the skull, in which is assigned as much as possible a normal shape with displacement of bone fragments. This ensures the elimination of the pressure exerted on the underlying portion of the Brain

For a full description of the positional occipital plagiocephaly, see a separate chapter.

BRACHYCEPHALY

Brachycephaly is called the deformity that is caused if both sides of the coronary suture are synostosed prematurely, reducing the anteroposterior head growth. The surgical repair is the same as the frontal plagiocephaly

TRIGONOCEPHALY

Trigonocephaly is induced by a premature frontal synostosis (mesofrontal) suture (which is a suture in the middle of the frontal bone) where the forehead is developed in a triangular manner.

 

Trigonocephaly preoperativelyTrigonocephaly preoperativelyPostoperative appearancePostoperative appearanceThree-dimensional imagingThree-dimensional imagingThree-dimensional imaging

SCAPHOCEPHALY

Scaphocephaly is induced by the premature synostosis of the sagittal suture. The suture is directed from the front to the back to the vertex and when it is closed prematurely is usually tactile and is visually observed a clearly elongated head.

 

Scaphocephaly, preoperative appearanceScaphocephaly, preoperative appearanceScaphocephaly, preoperative appearanceScaphocephaly, postoperative appearanceScaphocephaly, postoperative appearanceScaphocephaly, postoperative appearance

In some cases where only the back part of the sagittal suture synostoses prematurely, the head shape differs somewhat. The forehead is large and domed while the cranial vault is inclined from the front and top rear and bottom.

CRANIOSYNOSTOSES DIAGNOSIS

Craniosynostoses may be evident at birth or to be observed later. It is diagnosed by physical examination, usually in conjunction with diagnostic imaging.

During the examination, it is taken a complete medical history and the necessary measurements are made.

There is also the chance to be asked additional special imaging tests such as CT or MRI for a detailed evaluation.

SURGICAL RESTORATION

Each case is evaluated individually based on the following parameters:

  • Age
  • The state of health and weight
  • Type and extent of craniosynostosis

So, the recovery plan for every case is completely personalized to the specific needs of the child.

Usually, the recovery is possible only with surgery. The aim is to correct the shape of the head in order to allow the normal development of the brain and the head shape as well as the reduction of intracranial pressure, if available.

In the past, the surgical treatment of craniosynostosis is consisted in simply removing of the synostosis suture, with the hope that it would obtain the full normalization of the skull shape, with results generally unsatisfactory.

Only once surgeons realized that the dura (the sheath surrounding the brain) should be released in a wide area of the adhesions of the skull and that should be given a normal shape in the deformed sections of the skull during the first surgery, they began satisfactory results to be achieved.

Currently, they are performed specialized surgical cranioplasty interventions specially designed to restore the dysmorphic areas of the skull and facial skeleton.

These surgeries are performed generally in the first months of life in order to benefit the infant from the increased capacity of the tissues (periosteum and dura) to form bone after surgery.

The cranioplasty surgeries must be performed by specialized craniofacial teams in centers that are staffed by scientists and doctors with extensive experience in this type of disease.

 

PROBLEMS ACCOMPANYING CRANIOSYNOSTOSES

Pressure effects in the brain.

In the region of synostosis, the brain is pressed by the insufficient space that is created and therefore cannot be fed to the area with sufficient blood. The consequence may be the incomplete creation of synapses between the nerve cells that are necessary for the normal conformation of the nervous system.

Intracranial hypertension

The pressure that is exerted in the brain from the supernatant malformations of the skull can cause increased intracranial pressure, i.e. generalized intracranial hypertension, or to be exerted only locally in the portion of the brain that is below the bone malformations.

This problem is more common than previously thought and the highest rates are observed in the premature closure of the sagittal suture (scaphocephaly).

Progressive premature closure of other sutures

Progressive early occlusion of the coronary suture is observed after surgical correction of scaphocephaly. This problem is prevented by the simultaneous removal of coronary suture during the correction of scaphocephaly.

Eye problems

From non-syndromic craniosynostoses, the frontal plagiocephaly is often accompanied by eye problems. The most common are the following:

  • Strabismus, i.e. the eyes do not see a picture, but two, thus to eliminate an image and cause amblyopia in one eye. The eye suffers usually from the healthy side and not from the side of the lesion. This problem is completely curable if a diagnosis does promptly and it is observed almost exclusively in the frontal plagiocephaly.
  • Swelling of the optic papilla, it is a sign of intracranial hypertension.

It is obvious therefore how necessary is the regular ophthalmologic examination of children with premature synostosis of cranial sutures.

Cognitive and learning disorders

They are observed in increased frequency in children with non-syndromic synostoses, and they are occurred in early childhood. It hasn’t clarified yet whether they are caused by the same craniosynostosis or just due to the same gene that causes it.

It is recommended evaluation by developmental pediatrician once a year from the age of two years and after that if there is a suspicion of this problem to become an early therapeutic intervention timely.

PROGNOSIS

The prognosis of the non-syndromic craniosynostoses is generally good as long as the indicated surgery is performed in time and the child is still monitored regularly by the craniofacial team. Children should lead a normal way of life without restrictions, with the same distribution as that of the general population.